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[*] posted on 10-10-2018 at 02:12 AM

" A person receives a free HIV test during the World AIDS Day activities in Kigali Mike Montgomery Jersey , Rwanda, on Dec. 1, 2017. (XinhuaGabriel Dusabe)
WASHINGTON, Jan. 22 (Xinhua) -- A new testing method for HIVdeveloped by Stanford chemists combines the convenience of salivatest and the reliability of blood tests, a study shows onMonday.

By far the most common way to test for HIV infection is to lookfor antibodies in a blood sample. That test is far more convenientthan a direct search for the virus, in part because antibodies arerelatively abundant in the bloodstream after the early stages ofinfection. Its drawback is that few people will volunteer for bloodtesting.

But oral fluid tests have their own problems. While there areHIV antibodies in saliva Brett Anderson Jersey , they just aren't that many present,especially early on.

By the time oral fluid tests can reliably detect HIV, CarolynBertozzi, a member of Stanford Bio-X who led the study, said, ""Youhave waited a long time"" - and in that time Jon Lester Jersey , the infection couldspread.

Bertozzi's team wanted to figure out how to make it easier todetect the small amount of antibodies present in the saliva ofsomeone with HIV.

The novel method, reported on the Proceedings of the NationalAcademy of Sciences, takes advantage of a key feature ofantibodies, whose two arms easily latches onto a virus likeHIV.

Scientists take bits of HIV and attached them to one or theother half of a piece of DNA. They then added the modified HIV bitsinto the saliva sample of people who are screened for HIV.

If the sample contained HIV antibodies, their two arms wouldgrab hold of the tagged HIV, bringing the two halves of the DNAtogether into a continuous strand. Once the DNA piece is madewhole Kyle Hendricks Jersey , it is easy to detect using standard lab techniques.

That can all be done without requiring a blood sample or muchtechnology to process the samples that are taken. ""It'spurposefully low tech,"" Bertozzi said.

""Our hope is that we can get an earlier read than the presentoral test because the sensitivity is better,"" Bertozzi said.

Bertozzi also said the same principles may be useful for allergytesting and screening for typhoid and tuberculosis infection.Enditem

" "

WASHINGTON, Jan. 18 (Xinhua) -- Last year was the hottest yearon record without a warming El Nino event, according to reportspublished Thursday by multiple agencies, revealing a clear signalof continuing Koji Uehara Jersey , human-caused climate change on our planet.


The U.S. space agency NASA found 2017 to be the second warmestsince modern recordkeeping began in 1880, while the U.S. NationalOceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which conducted aseparate, independent analysis, ranked it as the third warmest.

According to NASA, globally averaged temperatures in 2017 were0.90 degrees Celsius warmer than the 1951 to 1980 average. That issecond only to global temperatures in 2016.

Scientists at NOAA found that the average temperature acrossglobal land and ocean surfaces during 2017 was 0.84 degrees Celsiusabove the 20th century average. This was the third highest amongall years in the 1880-2017 record Cubs Ryne Sandberg Jersey , behind the warmest 2016 and thesecond warmest 2015.

An analysis from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO),which confirmed 2017 was among the top three warmest years onrecord, showed that the global average surface temperature in 2017was approximately 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrialera.

""The annual change from year to year can bounce up and down,there is year to year variability, but the long term trends arevery clear, especially since the mid-21th century Cubs Ernie Banks Jersey ,"" Deke Arndt,chief of the global monitoring branch of NOAA's National Centersfor Environmental Information, told reporters during a mediateleconference.

""The overall picture is very, very similar and coherent,"" echoedGavin Schmidt, director of NASA's Goddard Institute for SpaceStudies during the same teleconference. ""We are in a long-termwarming trend.""

Overall Cubs Ron Santo Jersey , the five warmest years on record all have taken placesince 2010, NASA and NOAA said.


Phenomena such as El Nino or La Nina, which warm or cool theupper tropical Pacific Ocean and cause corresponding variations inglobal wind and weather patterns, contribute to short-termvariations in global average temperature.

A warming El Nino event was in effect for most of 2015 and thefirst third of 2016. Even without an El Nino event -- and with a LaNina starting in the later months of 2017 - last year'stemperatures ranked between 2015 and 2016 in NASA's records.

NOAA and NASA found the El Nino event spanning 2015 to 2016contributed 0.04 degrees Celsius to the annual average for 2015,and 0.12 degrees Celsius for 2016, but it had no effect on2017.

If ""the effects of the recent El Nino and La Nina patterns werestatistically removed from the record Cubs Andre Dawson Jersey , 2017 would have been thewarmest year on record,"" they said.

Martin Siegert, co-director of the Grantham Institute atImperial College London, called the fact that 2017 is the warmestnon- El Nino year ""unsurprising but deeply concerning.""

""Despite our best efforts so far, global warming continuesapace,"" Siegert said. ""Forget what the sceptics will tell you Cubs David Ross Jersey ,climate change is real and is happening right now ... This is yetanother wake-up call -- to develop a zero carbon sustainableeconomy before it's too late.""


Experts believed that global warming is closely tied to moreintense or frequent extreme events such as storms and droughts,which are now at historical high levels across the world.

In the U.S. alone, last year was officially declared the""costliest"" with losses from hurricanes, fires and freezes reachinga record 306 billion U.S. dollars. The United States had 16 weatherand climate disasters in 2017 each with losses exceeding o Due to sedentary l. Cheap Jerseys Cheap Jerseys Free Shipping Cheap Jerseys Wholesale Cheap Jerseys China Free Shipping Cheap NFL Jerseys Online Cheap Authentic NFL Jerseys Wholesale Authentic Jerseys Wholesale Throwback Sports Jerseys Wholesale Authentic Sports Jerseys Cheap Retro Soccer Jerseys

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[*] posted on 12-10-2018 at 07:50 PM

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